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Ask the Editor provides answers, clarification and guidance on style issues that go beyond the pages of the AP Stylebook. Before posing a question to AP editor David Minthorn, search the accompanying style archives for your topic. With thousands of questions and answers on file, your topic has very likely been covered. For typical style questions and responses, visit Ask the Editor FAQ.

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Ask the Editor questions from the past week:

Q. To the Editor: In a simple list of three or more items, the comma is left off on the last item. However, what about a complex list of two items? For example: Some company is deploying next generation firewall systems and Identity and Access Management (IAM) solutions. Also, what is there is a conjunction in the first part as well? Some company is deploying next generation firewall systems and solutions and Identity and Access Management (IAM) solutions. Thank you and have a nice day. – from Raleigh, N.C. on Tue, Apr 15, 2014

A. No commas in this sentence. Also, check "parentheses" entry for the AP Stylebook guidance on enclosed abbreviations.

Q. Is it life jacket or lifejacket? For example, she always wears her life jacket while boating. – from Lexington, Ky. on Tue, Apr 15, 2014

A. Two words, life jacket.

Q. If a sentence begins with a brand name that begins with a lowercase letter, do you forsake the branding or the capital rule? E.G. iPhones make up a significant portion of the smartphone market. – from Salem, Ore. on Tue, Apr 15, 2014

A. Capitalize the brand name starting a sentence: IPhones make up ...

Q. Is it me or myself, or either, in this sentence? It seems reflexive but I'm not sure: "That%uFFFDs why the doctors and lawyers %uFFFD myself (or me?) included %uFFFD are so invested in this piece of legislation." – from , Gary, Indiana on Tue, Apr 15, 2014

A. Use me in this construction.

Q. Hello, We will be submitting a marketing piece for print. In the piece, we have included quotations that spell certain words as two words. We are following the AP Stylebook and spelling these words throughout our content as one word. Is it acceptable to alter the two words in the quotations to one word? – from Morrisonville, N.Y. on Tue, Apr 15, 2014

A. Yes, using the Stylebook guidance in the "quotations in the news entry.

Q. Hi, would you use an apostrophe to talk about two letter U's? Or would it be two letter Us? – from Tokyo on Mon, Apr 14, 2014

A. Two U's written with an apostrophe.

Q. In AP style, is there a comma before "too" (e.g. "She chased after the dog, too."). If not in all instances, when, if at all, is it used? Thanks! – from San Diego on Mon, Apr 14, 2014

A. Generally too isn't set off with commas when used to mean also. Commas suggest a slight pause for emphasis, so the punctuation may be appropriate in some phrasings.

Q. I rcvd this question: "Does 'most highly proprietary projects' make sense in any context? I can appreciate that [Acme] has 'highly proprietary projects' and that some are more so than others, but it looks odd. My inclination would be '[Acme's] highest proprietary projects,' but that might be changing the meaning. Pls advise. Thanks! – from Flagstaff, Ariz. on Mon, Apr 14, 2014

A. Acme seems to be stretching terminology with modifiers. Are these proprietary projects of highest importance to Acme? Something along those lines?

Q. Does the AP Style have any rules pertaining specifically to online universities? – from Overland Park, Kan. on Mon, Apr 14, 2014

A. No, but the INTERNET ADDRESSES section of the "Internet" entry may be helpful.

Q. Which is correct, provide or provides, in the following sentence? Each of these tests provides different methods to determine deficiencies, toxicities and hormonal status. – from Chesterfield Townshi, MI on Mon, Apr 14, 2014

A. Each ... provides ...

Q. I was taught to use brackets [ ] to denote an insertion that is not a part of an original quote. Nowadays, it seems people use parenthesis. Which is preferred/correct? Thanks. – from Charleston, Miss. on Mon, Apr 14, 2014

A. Per the Stylebook's "brackets" entry, AP doesn't use them because of transmission problems. Use parentheses instead or rephrase the sentence.

Q. What is the correct use of M4 carbine? – from Camp Pendleton, Calif. on Mon, Apr 14, 2014

A. Per the "carbine" section of the Stylebook's "weapons" entry, M4 carbine is correct.

Q. What is AP Style's stance on uppercase letters used within a URL? I know uppercase letters are not necessary, but they do sometimes aid in reading a longer URL. – from Forest Grove, Oregon on Mon, Apr 14, 2014

A. Write the URL as used by the site, including capital letters.

Q. How does the AP treat companies and brands who style their trademarked names in lowercase letters? For example, the aviation company e-volo. My instinct is to respect the lowercase but use an initial cap when the name begins a sentence. I usually ignore contrived capitalization and punctuation schemes (e.g., "Clif Bar" rather than "CLIF Bar"), but the ubiquity of medial capitals in tech products like the iPhone has me rethinking that decision. – from Columbia, S.C. on Sun, Apr 13, 2014

A. Yes, e-volo in a text, E-volo to start a sentence. Generally, follow the spelling and capitalization preferred by the company. Do not use all-cap names unless the letters are individually pronounced.

Q. Regarding pickup trucks. AP says use simply pickup. But once the first reference to the vehicle is established, must it be called a pickup each and every time? All trucks are not pickups, but all pickups are trucks, so it would seem OK to use truck on a secondary or tertiary reference. What say you? – from Corpus Christie, Texas on Sun, Apr 13, 2014

A. The Stylebook entry is pickup (n. and adj.), meaning it is spelled as one word. AP stories generally specify pickup truck on first reference, then use pickup in subsequent references. Truck may be OK in follow-ups to pickup truck, especially if truck is widely used locally.

Q. When do I use a comma before the word "including," and when do I not? – from Rochester, N.Y. on Sun, Apr 13, 2014

A. Use a comma before a partial list or an example introduced by including.

Q. What is the proper use of the word "friar" when applied to a faculty member of a Catholic university who refers to himself as a Franciscan friar? Would it be, "...," said Friar Warner. Or, "...," said Rev. Warner. Or something else. Thank you. – from Stockton, Calif. on Sun, Apr 13, 2014

A. In AP stories about Franciscans or other Catholic orders, friar or brother usually follows the individual's full name. If the individual is an ordained priest, the Rev. would precede his full name on first reference.

Q. Hi, I was hoping to get some clarification on festivalgoers as a noun. Is it festivalgoer or festival-goer? – from Nashville, Tenn. on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. Using the online Stylebook's "-goer" guidance, festivalgoer as a compound.

Q. Concerning the "death, die" entry and avoiding euphemisms. Does this include burial? (such as laid to rest vs. buried) Thank you. – from Minneapolis on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. Laid to rest is an acceptable alternative for buried. Stories often use both terms in describing a funeral or burial.

Q. When a Mexican national is quoted speaking in English, and uses the term "mexicanos" -- is the word capitalized? i.e. "Mexicanos"? – from BAINBRIDGE ISLAND, Wash. on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. Yes, capitalize Mexicanos.

Q. Thank you for this helpful explanation. Is it correct then that numerals 0-9 should be used with units of measure that describe length, width, height, volume, and weight and with those used in chemistry, physics, and other sciences? Several of us are eager to nail down specifics. Q. Do you recommend writing "She has seven years of experience" or "She has 7 years of experience"? Between AP's "numerals" comments regarding units of measure and age, I'm confused. Please clarify this and cite the units of measurement that come into play here. Thanks. %uFFFD from Dallas on Fri, Apr 11, 2014 A. Spell out seven years of experience. In times, spell out numbers less than 10 standing alone and in modifiers. – from Dallas on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. Yes, use figures for exact measurements.

Q. Would AP take issue with a sentence like this? "Paul and his mom helped his brother with the dishes." Though it is generally clear that the second "his" refers to Paul, it seems to have a tendency to refer to the whole compound subject... that is, until we see that gender specificity dismisses the mom. Is it okay to have a possessive pronoun refer to just one of the subjects in a sentence, as long as there is no ambiguity? Or, is presenting two equal, parallel subjects then paying mind to only one of them with a pronoun something we should generally avoid? Thanks – from Tucson, Ariz. on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. If the phrasing raises questions, better to rewrite the sentence to make the relationships clearer using possessive pronouns. For example, Paul and his brother helped their mother with the dishes.

Q. What does AP use as a second reference for North Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh? – from Alexandria, Va. on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. Ho Chi Minh in all uses.

Q. When describing power plants or other things related to the fuel, would it be "natural-gas-fired generation" or "natural gas-fired generation"? – from Rapid City, S.D. on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. The second example is correct.

Q. What is the AP Style for proper nouns (names of government bodies, universities, NGOs, awards, etc.) that are in foreign languages for an English-language publication? Should we include both the name in the original language and the English translation? Or just the English translation? Or does it depend on how unique the name is (for example, a government ministry's name may be considered less unique than an NGO's name and so perhaps the local language name of the organization is more pertinent to include than the local language name of the ministry). Also, does a proper noun, such as the award name listed below, in a foreign language follow the rule for foreign words and therefore needs quotation marks? Or no quote marks because it is a name? EXAMPLE: The city government%uFFFDs legislature declared "fileteado" a %uFFFDPatrimonio Cultural de la Ciudad,%uFFFD or a %uFFFDCultural Patrimony of the City%uFFFD in English, in 2006. Thank you! – from San Francisco on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. AP stories use English translations of names of foreign government bodies, schools, groups, awards, etc. Generally the foreign name isn't included in quotes unless there's a need to amplify the translation. In your example, AP would translate fileteado, as well as the award name.

Q. Football coaches and players use the terms O-line and D-line all the time in reference to the offensive and defensive lines. What is the suggested proper style? O-line, O-Line, hyphen or no hyphen? This one is not covered in sports. – from Gainesville, Fla. on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. Within texts or in quotations, AP football stories use O-line and D-line.

Q. Is it call to action or call-to-action? – from Minneapolis on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. It's a call to action.

Q. I just submitted a question for which the answer did not work. I am trying to find the AP Guide the section that deals with the precise protocol for citing an article, as for a footnote as as, for example (to make one up): Smith, P, Rules to Live by. American J Spiritual Affairs 2004. Vo 4: 456-480. Where do I find guidance on this sort of citation? Peter – from woodstock, Vt. on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. AP news stories don't use footnotes. Check The Chicago Manual of Style for footnote formats.

Q. I am now to the AP Style Book. I have not been able to find the section dealing with citation of published material, such as corporate reports, research journal articles, etc. Where is it? – from woodstock, Vt. on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. AP stories attribute information where cited in the story, including the names of publications and authors. Direct citations are enclosed in quotes, per the Stylebook's "quotations in the news" entry. The Stylebook's "composition titles" is helpful for spelling names of publications.

Q. AP is pretty clear Ukraine does not take an article. But what if Ukraine is not being used as a noun? For example: In the wake of the Ukraine crisis, the two sides face difficult decisions. For comparison you would use an article in this sentence (similar structure): Obama is winding down the Afghanistan war. We are having this discussion in our newsroom now and would appreciate thoughts. – from Washington , District of Columbia on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. Ukraine as a country isn't preceded by the definite article. However, the definite article is correct in such constructions as the Ukraine crisis, a noun phrase.

Q. With the recent change in the more than, over entry, has the less than, under entry also changed? – from Arnold, MD on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. The Stylebook guidance on "fewer, less" remains. Check the dictionary definition of "under" for acceptable uses in numerical contexts.

Q. Do you recommend writing "She has seven years of experience" or "She has 7 years of experience"? Between AP's "numerals" comments regarding units of measure and age, I'm confused. Please clarify this and cite the units of measurement that come into play here. Thanks. – from Dallas on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. Spell out seven years of experience. In times, spell out numbers less than 10 standing alone and in modifiers.

Q. A $5 thank-you or $5 thank you? Also, as a thank-you or as a thank you? – on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. A $5 thank you. Hyphenate as a compound modifier: thank-you note.

Q. northern pike eggtake and stocking program In this instance, is "eggtake" one work or two? – from St. Paul , Minn. on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. AP member newspaper stories hyphenate the term as a modifier: egg-take and stocking program.

Q. We have a question about some legal jargon. Is it: flow-down clause or flowdown clause? Both appear online, with flow-down slightly more common. Thanks. – from Kansas City, Mo. on Fri, Apr 11, 2014

A. The term doesn't show in an AP archive search. Publications specializing in legal matters should have a preference.

Q. I see you say to hyphenate "for-profit" as a noun or adjective, but what about this example: "We work with both types of organizations, for profit and nonprofit."? – from Colorado Springs, Colo. on Thu, Apr 10, 2014

A. We work with both types of organizations, for-profit and nonprofit.

Q. In the first sentence my first intention was to change "1 to 2 year's" to "1-to-2 years." I am not sure if that is correct or if there are other mistakes I didn't catch? Sentence one: Some journalism students have a loosey goosey relationship with punctuation, but I have confidence they%uFFFDll figure it out in no more than 1 to 2 year%uFFFDs time. In the second sentence would I capitalize "Federal Reserve Board Chair" or just "Federal Reserve"? Second Sentence: Facebook COO Sheryl Sanderg was informed of the market crash by federal reserve board chair Janet Yellen. Thank you! -K – from kennewick, Wash. on Thu, Apr 10, 2014

A. ... one to two years' time; Federal Reserve Board Chair Janet Yellen.

Q. Would you capitalize molly in the following sentence? As a result, a synthetic drug called methylone %uFFFD sold under street-attached names such as Molly and bath salts, or more formally as Ecstasy and MDMA %uFFFD is raising old concerns among area drug investigators. – from Pekin, Ill. on Thu, Apr 10, 2014

A. Molly is capitalized.

Q. Is a comma needed in this sentence: Document in the patient's record when services have been completed and submit the information using the online portal. – from , St. Louis on Thu, Apr 10, 2014

A. No comma because the understood subject is the same for both clauses.

Q. Should "the" be capitalized before landmarks such as the Colosseum? A trip to Rome is not complete without seeing The Colosseum. – from Webster Groves, Mo. on Thu, Apr 10, 2014

A. Lowercase the article in the Colosseum.

Q. What is most correct-appeared on the TV show OR appeared in the TV show? – from Mt. Pleasant , S.C. on Thu, Apr 10, 2014

A. In AP stories, appeared on the TV show is used more often.

Q. Is it now acceptable/appropriate to stop using "For immediate release" at the beginning and "###" at the end of press releases? – from Indianapolis, Ind. on Thu, Apr 10, 2014

A. Better check the prevailing style used by publicity services such as PR Newswire:

Q. Would you capitalize nurse practitioner before a person's name, like a formal title (e.g., "Nurse Practitioner Jane Smith")? And how would you refer to the same NP on second reference? – from St. Louis, Mo. on Thu, Apr 10, 2014

A. Lowercase nurse practitioner preceding or following an individual's name. On second reference, use the surname without an abbreviated job title.

Q. Regarding the "non-" entry, I see that the general recommendation is no hyphen when forming a compound that does not have special meaning and can be understood if not is used before the base word. However, I recall in older versions of the stylebook that it was recommended to consult Webster's for its list of non/non- entries and go with those when available; is that still the recommendation? (If so, I assume I'd use non-starter, for example, since that's how it's listed in Webster's.) – from Washington on Thu, Apr 10, 2014

A. Yes, non-starter is the customary spelling.

Q. If a sentence begins with a hyphenated word, the word preceding the hyphen is capitalized, but is the word after the hyphen capitalized? For example, Self-directed teams are productive. Self-Directed teams are productive. Which sentence is correct? – from New Milford, Conn. on Thu, Apr 10, 2014

A. Self-directed teams are productive.

Q. Is it battle royale or battle royal? Common usage has an 'e' but many dictionaries say to use battle royal. – from Grand Rapids, MI on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. The preference is battle royal in Webster's New World College Dictionary, the AP Stylebook's main reference.

Q. Do plural modifiers take on a possessive apostrophe? e.g., "shareholders meeting" – from , on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. They can, but in this case it's normally spelled as a descriptive modifier without a hyphen: shareholders meeting.

Q. would it be a hollow point bullet or hollow-point bullet? – from Orysia, New York City, N.Y. on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. Generally spelled hollow point bullet.

Q. Please comment on the range punctuation. "The prices of 4- to 5-year-old trucks have been above the historical range..." – from St. Petersburg, Fla. on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. Consecutive years aren't really a range. It's better written as 4- and 5-year-old trucks. Or trucks built in 2009 and 2010.

Q. Is web page acceptable now? Or is it AP style to keep cap Web? – from St. Paul , Minn. on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. It's Web page, two words, cap W.

Q. Is it teepee or tipi? – from St. Paul , Minn. on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. The Stylebook entries on "Indians" and "Native Americans" use teepee, with a caution on usage.

Q. Is it "high-wind-speed areas" or "high wind-speed areas"? – from Winsted, Minn. on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. Lose the speed. It's understood as high wind areas.

Q. I have a security threat known as Heartbleed. Computer hackers have been using it for some time. Besides capping it would I put is in quotes? – from Orysia, New York City, N.Y. on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. It may be enclosed as "Heartbleed" on first reference. Thereafter it's Heartbleed.

Q. When you say "eight of 34 realized a savings," should you make it parallel and say "8 of 34"? – from Chicago on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. I'd spell eight in this construction.

Q. Is "the fish die-off" hyphenated? or is it die off – from St. Paul , Minn. on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. It's hyphenated in AP stories: fish die-off.

Q. Does the following require hyphenation? If so, what is the correct placement of the hyphens? The not-so-much anticipated part of spring. – on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. The not so much anticipated part of spring.

Q. Is over-abundant hyphenated or is it overabundant? – from St. Paul , Minn. on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. It's one word. See "over" prefix entry.

Q. Could you please tell me if the hyphen is required in this sentence: "Luckily for you, our facility is so close-by." Thanks for your help. – from Madison, Wis. on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. Luckily for you, our facility is so close by.

Q. Are wine types like Merlot and Sangria capitalize? – from , on Wed, Apr 09, 2014

A. Lowercase merlot, a grape variety. Lowercase sangria, a type of punch made with red wine and fruit juice. See "wines" entry for guidance on capitalization of regional names.

Q. If a web address is at the end of a sentence, should I use punctuation? – from Pembroke, N.C. on Tue, Apr 08, 2014

A. At the end of a sentence, the address is followed by a period.

Q. what is AP's policy, if it has one, on use of a term like "pissed off" in a quotation? – from Sarasota, Fla. on Tue, Apr 08, 2014

A. The question we ask ourselves: How vital is the vulgarity to the story? If it's gratuitous, the word can be paraphrased. If critical in a quote, it will be included. Certain obscenities may be flagged atop the story and elided, if not paraphrased. For a discussion on the issue, see

Q. Re: crowdsourcing, crowdsource, crowdsourced, it appears that the entry in Home > AP Stylebook > Chapter Social_medi > Crowdsourcing supercedes the Ask the Editor item: Ask the Editor results: Q. I have a couple writers and Web producers pushing me to adopt crowdsourcing as opposed to crowd sourcing. What is AP going to be doing with this? from Washington, D.C. on Aug 14, 2008 A. I've seen it as two words, hyphenated and one word. Jury's still out on a definitive spelling. – from Dallas on Tue, Apr 08, 2014

A. Yes, the Stylebook entry is crowdsourcing, which is now the AP spelling.

Q. Which of the following would be correct? %uFFFDConsidering tConshat seven out of 10 people%uFFFD%uFFFD %uFFFDidering that 7 out of 10 people%uFFFD%uFFFD %uFFFDConsidering that seven out of ten people%uFFFD%uFFFD What if it starts a sentence? %uFFFDSeven out of 10 people%uFFFD%uFFFD or %uFFFDSeven out of ten people%uFFFD%uFFFD The numerals section is not particularly clear on this usage. – from Washington, D.C. on Tue, Apr 08, 2014

A. Considering that 7 out of 10 people ... Seven out of 10 people ...

Q. I know that volt is always spelled out in AP Style...what about kilovolt? – from Albany, N.Y. on Tue, Apr 08, 2014

A. It's kilovolt.

Q. Is it coworker or co-worker? – from St. Paul , Minn. on Tue, Apr 08, 2014

A. The hyphenated co-worker is correct.

Q. For a Q&A with a source: What is the correct way to punctuate a reference to a book title that has been shortened to a common nickname that is not part of the name of the original work (i.e. Huck Finn)? – from Santa Fe, N.M. on Tue, Apr 08, 2014

A. Huck Finn, no quotation marks.

Q. The time required is "two to four hours." Correct? – from Westlake, Ohio on Tue, Apr 08, 2014

A. Yes, with quotation marks for a partial quote.

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