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Ask the Editor provides answers, clarification and guidance on style issues that go beyond the pages of the AP Stylebook. Before posing a question to AP editor David Minthorn, search the accompanying style archives for your topic. With thousands of questions and answers on file, your topic has very likely been covered. For typical style questions and responses, visit Ask the Editor FAQ.

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Ask the Editor questions from the past week:

Q. Is debuted a word, as in past tense of debut? – from Chesterfield Townshi, MI on Tue, Sep 16, 2014

A. Yes, use debuted for the past tense.

Q. If a professor emeritus dies, do you then call him deceased professor emeritus ... – from La Jolla, Calif. on Tue, Sep 16, 2014

A. The late Professor Emeritus John Smith.

Q. Is a doctorate considered a graduate degree? – from Phoenix , Ariz. on Tue, Sep 16, 2014

A. Correct.

Q. Don Mason, assistant business editor, Houston Chronicle Did AP rescind this year's rule change requiring that state names be spelled out? I recall that it did, but am not finding that in the Stylebook or Ask the Editor archives. – from Houston on Tue, Sep 16, 2014

A. AP spells out state names in conjunction with localities if they differ from the city-state abbreviation in a dateline. See "datelines" and "state names" for elaboration.

Q. I see in Webster's new world that "wholly-owned" is an entry. But I have always followed AP style of not hyphenating -ly adverbs. I also saw you cite this "rule" in another "Ask the Editor" entry. So in "a wholly owned subsidiary" should I hyphenate or not? – from Indianapolis on Tue, Sep 16, 2014

A. No hyphen in wholly owned per the Stylebook's "-ly" entry guidance.

Q. When using the term LAN (local area network), the AP entry says, "Acronym acceptable on first reference but spell out in copy." Does this mean that LAN can be used as a stand-alone acronym in the body of a release or does it need to be spelled out either on first reference or in parenthesis after the acronym (again, on first reference)? Also, what is the verdict on USB? Does it need to be spelled out on first reference or is it okay by itself? Both are relatively common acronyms... – from Albany, N.Y. on Tue, Sep 16, 2014

A. LAN may be used on first reference within a story, but the term should be spelled out on a subsequent usage. Don't enclose the abbreviation in parentheses. USB is OK as an abbreviation in all uses.

Q. Should it be agency-wide or agencywide? Also, It is nonmotorized or non-motorized? – from St. Paul , Minn. on Tue, Sep 16, 2014

A. It's agencywide and nonmotorized or not motorized.

Q. AP seems to use UNHCR for the agency, never spelling out term in the copy. Is this AP style? (As far as I know the official name is still the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.) – from Chicago on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. AP stories often spell out the full term on first reference, then use UNHCR in follow-ups. Alternatively, shorter forms are used for to define the abbreviation: The United Nations refugee agency, UNHCR, ...

Q. When you are trying to verify a famous or historic quotation, what source does AP use to do this? – from Houston on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. Among the references books and databases: AP news archives, Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, encyclopedias and dictionaries.

Q. Cross shareholding or cross-shareholding? – from Seoul, XX on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. AP business stories hyphenate cross-shareholding.

Q. Should megawatts be abbreviated (on second reference) when the object of a sentence? For example, %uFFFDThe two power plants generate a total of 60-MW.%uFFFD – from New York on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. The Stylebook's "watts" entry allows the abbreviation on second reference: 60 MW.

Q. In health care, there are compliance rules for short stays. What is the proper way of writing: Two-Midnight Rule/2 Midnight Rule/Two Midnight Rule? I've seen it so many ways... capitalized, hyphenated, numeral, etc. Please help! – from Nashville, Tenn. on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. If AP were to use the term, it would be written as two-midnight guidance or rule, with a brief explanation.

Q. When referencing Bitcoin, please confirm this rule is still up to date: capitalize as concept and lowercase as a currency. – from San Diego, California on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. The 2014 Stylebook changed to bitcoin spelled lowercase in all uses.

Q. Would I hyphenate "health-aware" in this sentence? "Being health-aware isn't just about ..." – from Kansas City, Kan. on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. It's an odd usage (noun-adjective). AP stories frequently use health awareness in various contexts. Better to rephrase it along those lines.

Q. Is it possible to paste the contents of a document in the ;electronic version of the AP Stylebook so the entire document is automatically checked for style and consistency against the stylebook rules? – from Blue Springs, Mo. on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. See for several style checking products offered by subscription.

Q. Regarding this very timely question and answer: Q. When referring to the terrorist group ISIS, is it correct to write/say The Islamic State, the Islamic State, or just Islamic State? I keep seeing many versions in the media. %uFFFD from Moscow, Russia on Mon, Sep 15, 2014 A. In AP stories it's the Islamic State group. So, what should second reference be? IS or I.S. or just restate Islamic State? Thanks! – from Tampa, Fla. on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. On second and subsequent references, Islamic State group. Individuals or units are referred to as Islamic State fighters or Islamic State militants. The IS abbreviation may be used in headlines.

Q. When referring to the terrorist group ISIS, is it correct to write/say The Islamic State, the Islamic State, or just Islamic State? I keep seeing many versions in the media. – from Moscow, Russia on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. In AP stories it's the Islamic State group.

Q. "May" or "can" as far as with word "reached"? Grew up with learning to say "may I" when asking permission. So if at the end of a story -- especially one by a freelancer or guest columnist -- would it be [author's name] "can be reached" at or "may be reached."? If we have permission to use the author's email address than permission is give to publish it and readers are allowed to send comments or questions -- so we could use "may." Or if that's the person's email, then they "can" be reached there. Any suggestions? – from New Jersey on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. Go with "can be reached," meaning the reader is able to contact the individual at the email address.

Q. I saw a question from Kansas City, MO on Sun, Feb 11, 2007, that seemed similar to this question... I'm working on marketing material where we have a poster with multiple times: Class 1 10 - 11 a.m., Class 2 11:15 a.m. - 12:15 p.m., Class 3 1:30 p.m. - 2:30 p.m., Class 4 3-4 p.m. Could you clarify whether it's correct to drop ":00" after some of the times in a table when others have minutes? – from Santa Barbara, Calif. on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. Confirming for clock times at the top of the hour, 10-11 a.m., 3-4 p.m., etc.

Q. Where can I find guidance on writing the "time, date, place" sequence for news stories? – from Patuxent River, MD on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. AP stories generally list event, time, date and place in that order. The meeting is at 7 p.m. Sept. 30 in the college auditorium.

Q. If Trinity is capitalized, would Trinitarian be capitalized if it precedes Christian? – from Oakton, Va. on Mon, Sep 15, 2014

A. Correct.

Q. When I need to write a town and state at the end of a sentence, for example Los Angeles, Calif., is the state abbreviated or written out? – from Vernon Hills, Ill. on Sun, Sep 14, 2014

A. Los Angeles stands alone without a state within AP news stories. But include the state name written out for most other localities, such as Riverside, California. See the "datelines" entry for stand-alone cities and "state names" for state abbreviations still used in datelines.

Q. When asked about hyphens in phrases like actor-turned-governor, Ask the Editor waffles in the several times the question is addressed. May we have a definitive yes or no to the use of hyphens? – from Louisiana on Sun, Sep 14, 2014

A. As stated previously, actor-turned-governor, actor-turned-California governor.

Q. Situated on a 28,000 square foot lot, the home blah blah blah. Correct, or 28,000 square-foot lot? – from Delmar, N.Y. on Sun, Sep 14, 2014

A. Hyphenated as a compound modifier: Situated on a 28,000-square-foot lot, the home ...

Q. When I asked my questions, "Is the 'b' in the abbreviation of British thermal units (btu or Btu) capitalized in a sentence?" and "Is the 't' in therm capitalized in a sentence?" Ask the Editor answered "See British thermal unit entry." I looked at that entry before submitting my question and it doesn't answer what I asked. The entry has the B in Btu capitalized because it's at the beginning of the sentence. My question is asks if the B is capitalized throughout a sentence. My other question was is the "t" in therm, capitalized and that isn't mentioned in the British thermal unit entry. – from Cedar Rapids, Iowa on Sun, Sep 14, 2014

A. It's Btu on second reference, cap B for British.

Q. Would you say, She gave me three twenties? or She gave me three 20s? or three $20's? three $20s? Thanks! – from Salina, Kan. on Sat, Sep 13, 2014

A. Either three twenties as a casual use of a currency figure or rephrased as three $20 bills.

Q. I know it's twofold, but what about for halves. Should it be "a 2.5-fold jump" ? Thanks – from Virgina, XX on Sat, Sep 13, 2014

A. No hyphen in "-fold" constructions, per the entry, which uses only whole numbers as examples. Make it a jump of 2 1/2 times or similar.

Q. Is the "b" in the abbreviation of British thermal units (btu or Btu) capitalized in a sentence? Also, is the "t" in therm capitalized in a sentence? – from Cedar Rapids, Iowa on Sat, Sep 13, 2014

A. See "British thermal unit" entry.

Q. Does AP allow starting a sentence with 24/7, or should it be written out? – from Colorado Springs, Colo. on Sat, Sep 13, 2014

A. With the exception of a year, such as 2014, numerals starting a sentence are spelled out. You might consider rephrasing to place 24/7 within the sentence.

Q. When a quote is more than one sentence long, is it necessary to break up the quote? For example: "I was so excited to ask the editor a question," she said. "I wonder if I will get an answer." or could we just say "I was so excited to ask the editor a question. I wonder if I will get an answer," she said. – from Baltimore on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. Quotes may be longer than one short sentence. Either of your two examples is fine.

Q. I'm not finding an entry for "overdose" -- will you advise on AP's preferred approach? Does a person suffer an overdose, experience an overdose? Any guidance on a drug overdose story is much appreciated! – from Moccasin, Ariz. on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. If authorities say a person suffered a drug overdose, the AP story may include that nuanced term. Otherwise, the phrasing may be more concise: Police said the deaths look like drug overdoses.

Q. Should sports teams be referred to with their or its? As in, "The volleyball team expects to improve on its/their record this season." – from Santa Cruz, , Calif. on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. Team is a collective noun taking a singular verb and pronoun. You could also rephrase the sentence to use a plural construction: The volleyball team members expect to improve on their record this season.

Q. Cross-linked polyethylene, a type of plumbing pipe, is abbreviated as PEX. Should we retain all-caps, even though it doesn't seem to be an acronym or initialism? – from Minneapolis on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. AP stories have occasionaly used PEX pipes on second reference for cross-linked polyethylene pipes.

Q. Is there a comma before "but" in the following example: "Sad, but true."? – from Seattle on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. The phrase is generally written without a comma.

Q. Is "indictment" usually singular only? Meaning, if someone is indicted on multiple charges, is that 1 indictment or is each charge its own indictment? – from Mount Pleasant, S.C. on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. Yes, the indictment would cite multiple changes, if that's the case.

Q. Is it proper to begin a paragraph with this first "non-sentence"? Two hundred twenty three. That's the current record for consecutive airline travel days, held by George Mandison of Wilshire, Ontario. – from Fairfax, Va. on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. Yes, with hyphenated twenty-three.

Q. When using a street address but NOT a zip code, would you abbreviate the state in this case? 650 N. Lake St., Madison, Wis. OR 650 N. Lake St., Madison, Wisconsin – from Madison, Wis. on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. AP news stories now spell out state names in an address if the story is from another state. No state name is necessary if it's the same as the dateline.

Q. How do I capitalize gruner veltliner mid-sentence? "Veltliner" is a region (though not the region from which the wine originates; it's from Austria and inexplicably named after a region in Italy). This would imply "gruner Veltliner" is correct, but this looks odd to me. – from Portland, Ore. on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. In AP stories, including from Austria, it's gruner veltliner within a sentence.

Q. Is the term 'gaming' acceptable in reference to casual tapletop games, such as Dungeons and Dragons or Magic: The Gathering? – from Ashland, Ohio on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. Better stick to games. By dictionary definition, gaming (n.) refers primarily to gambling or training exercises for business or war.

Q. A colleague is formatting article titles that are links. Do the quotation marks go inside or outside the underlined portion of each link? I think they should go inside the link for a smoother read. I've searched high and low on the AP site for confirmation and found none. Please advise. Thank you much. – from Kansas City, Mo. on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. Probably inside. However, AP news stories cite the publication and provide a link to the article, as in this example: The Columbian reports ( the move was prompted by ...

Q. When using the word "help" followed by an infinitive, is it proper grammar to add "to" before the infinitive or not? Example: The scholarships will help students [to?] attend a university abroad. – from Los Angeles on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. The sentence reads smoothly without the preposition, though it's OK to include it.

Q. With the debut of Apple's new device, is AP sticking with "smart watch" as two words? – from Chicago on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. AP stories about the Apple device use smartwatch, one word.

Q. %uFFFDThe more no%uFFFDs you get the closer you are to a yes.%uFFFD I feel using the apostrophe to show pluralism in this instance is incorrect, but "nos" looks like a misspelling of nose. Please advise on how AP would stylize this construction. Thank you! – from Long Island, NY on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. Use the dictionary's first spelling for the plural: noes.

Q. Under AP guidelines, what would be the style for this? It looks like in the logo, it's "cc McKenzie" with the lowercase double c and a space. It reads funny in copy, so I wanted to check with you. Here's the website, in case you want to see how the company uses it: – from Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. on Fri, Sep 12, 2014

A. The "company names" entry says to generally follow the spelling and capitalization preferred by the business. But capitalize the first letter if it begins a sentence.

Q. When there is chanting in a quote with letters, How do you write it? Forexample R-O-C-K! – from Gainesville, Fla. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Using the example of a "U-S-A!" chant in an AP story, "R-O-C-K!"

Q. Please forgive me if I am asking a question that appears to have been answered, but I am at a bit of a loss. In this sentence: "Remove as much stain as possible by sanding or scraping; clean the surface thoroughly; apply a primer, and follow with high-quality latex paint," what would you suggest as proper punctuation/phrasing? Should I have used a semicolon before the final "and?" Is there anything else that I could do differently to make it clearer? I am limited in the number of words I can use, and I cannot use bullets or a numbered list, so I am a stumped as to the best way to summarize these steps. Thanks much! – from Racine, Wis. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Remove as much stain as possible by sanding or scraping. Clean the surface thoroughly. Apply a primer and follow with high-quality latex paint.

Q. Is there a style rule for where titles go in a sentence in relation to a person's name? I've long believed that short titles generally go before a name and that longer titles should follow a name, to be easiest to read. Is that right? – from Albuquerque, N.M. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Usually the title most pertinent to the story or context goes directly before the name, the others follow the name.

Q. A while back, someone posted the following question and I'd like clarification on your answer. In what cases would you use half a million and not a half million? And, it's never $500,000, correct? Q. Which is preferred: "half a million" or "a half million"? (Same question applies to half dozen, etc.) from Seaside, Calif. on Nov 06, 2012. A. Probably the second, but there are cases where the first is more apt. – from Albuquerque, N.M. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. I can't dictate one or the other. Usage allows both. The precise figure is used all the time. An example: The house sold for $500,000.

Q. Is American capitalized in American cheese? – from San Diego on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Correct.

Q. Is the comma after loan data necessary? "We offer report writing services for customer and loan data, and can quickly meet your report needs through our large inventory of existing reports." – from Raleigh, N.C. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. No comma because both clauses share the subject we.

Q. In the following, should the first letters in the words %uFFFDsenator%uFFFD and %uFFFDsir%uFFFD be uppercase or lowercase?: %uFFFDWell, that%uFFFDs not what I said, senator. What I said, if I could, sir, is we know a great deal more about the makeup of the opposition,%uFFFD Carney said. – from Arlington, Va. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Correct as written lowercase.

Q. I am editing a book and want to know if, when referring to a range, is it "one to five" or "1-5?" – from Vernon Hills, Ill. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Use figures for ranges. See the "range" entry for models.

Q. In this list, should there be a "the" before each title, or is the one before "governor" sufficient for the entire list? "The other seven members are ex officio: the governor, lieutenant governor, speaker of the state assembly, state superintendent of public instruction, president and vice president of the Alumni Associations of the UC and the UC president." – from Santa Cruz, , Calif. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. The before governor suffices. However, capitalize Assembly and lowercase alumni associations. On first reference, it's the University of California.

Q. I do not see that the "Bible" category answers the question about citing a Bible verse in "Ask the Editor" from earlier today. Specifically should "the citation come before the verse, or after the verse and set aside in parentheses?" – from Portland, Ore. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. The Biblical citation model isn't in parentheses. We don't specify it's placement before or after the verse.

Q. Does AP have a standard for the following medical abbreviations: IVIG (or IVIg) and SCIG (or ScIg, or SCIg) when not spelling out %uFFFDintravenous immunoglobulin%uFFFD or %uFFFDsubcutaneous immunoglobulin%uFFFD? Thanks! – from Clinton Township, MI on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Per the Stylebook entry, IV is acceptable on all references for intravenous. The accompanying term is written out, as is the other on first reference.

Q. Is it Irish Traveller or Irish Traveler when speaking of the ethnic group? – from Altoona, Pa. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. AP stories from the U.K. have used Irish Travelers, described as a group similar to but ethnically distinct from Gypsies or Roma.

Q. In this sentence, "Circuit Court (trial court) decisions have no binding precedential value on any other Circuit Court." wouldn't circuit courts be lc (except for the first word)? – from medford, MA on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Capitalize the full proper names of courts at all levels. That doesn't seem to be the case in your sentence.

Q. How do you cite a Bible verse if it is standing alone in an article? Should the citation come before the verse, or after the verse and set aside in parentheses? – from Statesboro, Ga. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. See the "Bible" entry in Religion Guidelines, which includes a format for citations.

Q. What is the current AP recommendation for electronic newsletters, e-newsletter or enewsletter? Thanks. – from Houston on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. With the exception of email, electronic terms are hyphenated: e-newsletter.

Q. When referring to a chapter of a book or the name of a particular section in a document, should its title be capitalized and/or put in quotation marks? – from Washington on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. See "chapters" entry. Formally named sections of renowned documents are capitalized: the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution.

Q. When referring to a "button" on a website a user should select or click, should the button name be capitalized or put in quotation marks? – from Washington on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Usually written without quotes: click on the start button.

Q. Should this say *between* or *among*? ...relationships *between* industries and service lines... I can't recast. Please advise. Thank you much. – from Kansas City, Mo. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. For multiple relationships, among is probably the better choice.

Q. Are the following punctuations of Packers correct? The Packers' new-look defense was a dud in Week 1. They must do more to keep Packers fans happy. And one more: He was a lifelong Packers fan. ... or ... He was a lifelong Packer fan. – from Shawano, Wis. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Generally AP prefers to write team names as descriptives, without an apostrophe, rather than possessives. Packers fans is usual. The singular Packer might be used in a singular construction.

Q. AP style says lower case for tweet but upper case for Googling and Googled. Why not be consistent? – from Englewood Cliffs, N.J. on Thu, Sep 11, 2014

A. Google is a trademark, so other terms formed from that word are also capitalized. Twitter is the trademark, so use capital T for Twitter message. The commonly used tweet is a different word and spelled lowercase in AP usage.

Q. The phrase I'm editing reads: "a two and a half week vacation." I know it is correct to hyphenate "one-half," but is it necessary to hyphenate "two-and-one-half?" – from Syracuse, N.Y. on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. It's a 2 1/2-week vacation, using figures per the "factions" guidance.

Q. Road side assistance or road-side assistance? – from Seoul, XX on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. Roadside assistance.

Q. If a company does not capitalize its name, do you follow its convention even if it may lead to confusion in the text? For example, there is a company that calls itself "explora," but in the phrase "totally unique explora experience" it may be mistaken for an error. – from USA, Maine on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. For clarity, capitalize Explora.

Q. Any preference on Maker Faire as to uppercase or lowercase? – from Fort Wayne, Ind. on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. It's capitalized in AP stories, often with the name of the locality hosting the event.

Q. When referring to software that can be deployed at a user's site or in the cloud, is it correct to say "deployed on premise" or "deployed on-premise?" When describing the software, is it "on premise software" or "on-premise "? – from Wareham, MA on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. The dictionary spelling is premises (pl.) for real estate or a specific location. However, the singular spelling with the hyphenated on has been used in AP stories about software: deployed on-premise, on-premise software.

Q. %uFFFDRegard%uFFFD or %uFFFDregards%uFFFD? Your stance on %uFFFDin regard to%uFFFD vs. %uFFFDin regards too%uFFFD appears to vary. Is that correct? Thanks. Q. Is it in regard to...or in regards to? Or just regarding? from Truckee, CA on Jul 28, 2009 A. The first or third are OK as idioms, but not the second. Q. Is it properly "in regard to" or "in regards to"? from Piedmont, Okla. on Mar 10, 2011 A. In regard to, assuming the phrase means concerning. Q. Is it correct to write "in regards to" or should it be "in regard to"? from Chicago, Ill. on Jan 16, 2013 A. Either is fine. Q. Is the proper usage "in regard to" "in regards to"? from Fairfax, Va. on Jul 03, 2014 A. In regard to ... or regarding ... – from Dallas on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. Regarding is the customary term. In regard to is used in some instances.

Q. If I have a hyphen in a title or headline, do I capitalize the second part of the hyphenated term? For example, which is correct: Short-Term Incentive Plan or Short-term Incentive Plan? Thanks! – from Los Angeles on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. Primary words, including hyphenated terms, are usually capped in titles. Your phrase looks more like headline. In AP usage, it would be written like this: Short-term incentive plan

Q. Is the term "English-language" hyphenated? Is there a general rule for this? Example: Take a wide range of academic and conversational English-language (or English language) courses. – from California on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. Hyphenated as a modifier ... English-language courses.

Q. I was sure I'd seen this kind of construction on your site, but now can't find it. Is this correct: The question is, Why haven't they found it? When the question is not a direct quotation, is the first word of the portion that forms the question within a sentence capitalized? Thanks – from Flagstaff, Ariz. on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. For an indirect question, lowercase the query and don't use a question mark: The question is, why haven't they found it. For elaboration, the "question mark" entry in the Punctuation Guide.

Q. Advice in a previous question said to lowercase the word "the" in the middle of sentence, even if it was referring to a proper name such as "The Arts Partnership." The newspapers entry notes that some papers capitalize the word "The" in their name, such as The New York Times. So what is the rule? Does AP only capitalize "The" when it's part of a newspaper's formal name and not for any other proper noun? What about if the word "The" is part of a blog's official name? – from Seattle on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. The "company names" guidance says use "the" lowercase unless it is part of the company's formal name. In news stories, the definite article in a formal name isn't always used: e.g., Home Depot in earning reports instead of The Home Depot.

Q. CEO Sir Ian Cheshire or simply CEO Ian Cheshire? Nobility title required here on first reference? – from Chicago on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. Avoid abutting titles by setting off the name: Kingfisher CEO, Sir Ian Cheshire, said Wednesday ...

Q. When reporting a real time stock price as, "Real time: 508.6" should it be "Real time," "Realtime," or "Real-time" – from , New York, New York on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. As an adjective, it's real-time with a hyphen, as in real-time stock price. But I'm not sure about the words in quotations. Real time could be correct as is without a hyphen.

Q. Hello. What is the proper way to refer to a member of board of directors of a public agency who leaves the room during a discussion/vote because of a potential conflict of interest? "He recused himself from the discussion?" Thanks Joe Tash – from Oceanside, Calif. on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. The sentence is correct. A news story should also explain that the board member left the room and specify the potential conflict of interest.

Q. I'm confused about the use of "mic" (informal abbreviation of microphone). An older Ask the Editor says that AP uses the abbreviation "mike." I originally wanted to see if "open mic night" would be hyphenated, only to find that some say "mike." What is the correct way to write "open mic night"? – from , Williamsport, Pa. on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. "Open mic night" is generally used as the informal term, though the dictionary also also accepts "mike" as an informal form of microphone.

Q. Would AP accent the term shojo manga? – from Farmington, Maine on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. AP doesn't use accents in English-language text services.

Q. For representatives, do you place their party and state in parentheses or set it off with commas? (D-Calif.) or , D-Calif., – from Chicago on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. Set off with commas, not enclosed in parentheses. See SHORT-FORM PUNCTUATION in the "party affiliation" entry.

Q. In referencing a book with multiple authors, does the citation look like this (as an example)? Heath, Chip, & Heath, Dan (2007). %uFFFDMade to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die.%uFFFD New York: Random House. Thank you! – from Phoenixville, Pa. on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. Based on the bibliography format in the AP Stylebook: Heath, Chip and Heath, Dan. "Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die." Random House, 2007.

Q. America's war for independence - would that be capped, as it refers to the Revolutionary War? – from Farmington, Maine on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. America's War of Independence is capitalized.

Q. Do you use an "rd" ending in the following date example: "For more information about the September 23rd event ..."? If not, when do you use such endings in dates? – from Washington on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. AP would make it Sept. 23 event. We don't use st, nd, rd or th in calendar dates, per the "dates" entry.

Q. The new Webster's New World College Dictionary spells the word e-mail with a hyphen, showing "email" as the also written at the end of the entry. I thought that AP had changed from e-mail to email a few years ago. What is correct AP style? – from Raleigh, N.C. on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. AP writes email without a hyphen, per the Stylebook entry, which differs from the primary spelling in Webster's NWCD.

Q. This is more of a thought than a question: "Ask the Editor" previously has answered that for plural uses of "email," either "emails" or "email messages" is acceptable. But shouldn't "email" be treated like "mail," which is the correct form for both singular and plural uses? You wouldn't say "I need to sort through my mails," so why would it be correct to say, "I need to sort through my emails?" Again, just a thought. Thanks. – from Oklahoma City on Wed, Sep 10, 2014

A. In many cases, the plural form needs an s to make sense. For example, thousands of emails were released Thursday. But it's also correct the email without an s can have a plural meaning.

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